© 2018 Association for International Homeopathic Certification

 

Learning Objectives for AIHC Exam: Part I

SECTION: PHILOSOPHY OF HOMEOPATHY

Demonstrate understanding and application of basic homeopathic concepts and principles according to the 6th Edition of the Organon of the Medical Art by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann and homeopathic texts on similar topics (refer to AIHC Booklist):

1. Principles of classical homeopathy

a. The Law of Similars - similia similibus curentur
b. Totality- treating the whole person on all three levels; physical, emotional and mental
c. Individuality- every person is unique
d. Potentization- dilution and succussion of medicines
e. Minimal dose- the least amount of medicine required in each individual case

2. Principles of cure

a. Nature of disease and cure

b. The highest ideal of cure

c. Homeopathic natural law

d. Interactions between similar and dissimilar diseases

e. Rational for potentization of homeopathic remedies- dynamic nature of disease

f. The initial action, counter action, and curative action in homeopathic versus

allopathic treatments

 

3. Understanding disease

a. Definition of acute disease: sporadic and epidemic
b. Definition of chronic and other protracted disease: artificially-induced, mimicking sickness, and true chronic diseases

 

4. Chronic miasms

a. Psora, sycosis, and syphilitic miasms
b. Principles underlying the treatment of chronic miasms

5. Mental and emotional disease, chronic one-sided mental and emotional disease, and flare- ups of chronic miasms

 

6. Understanding Hahnmann's guidelines for taking a homeopathic case including:

a. Principle of individualization
b. Symptoms – common, strange; rare; and peculiar, general, and particular symptoms

c. Three levels of disease; mental, emotional and physical symptoms and their hierarchy

 

 

7. Principles of conducting a proving of a homeopathic remedy and the recording of the modes of action in materia medica

 

8. Preparation of homeopathic remedies; the method of trituration and potentization

SECTION: MATERIA MEDICA

Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristic symptoms of homeopathic remedies (refer to AIHC Remedy List):

  1. Characteristic mental , emotional and physical symptoms

  2. Characteristic physiological affinities and pathologies

  3. General symptoms/modalities

  4. Strange, rare, and peculiar symptoms (SRP)

  5. Sensations (as if)

  6. Keynote symptoms

  7. Miasmatic affiliations

SECTION: REPERTORY

Demonstrate knowledge of Kent's Repertory; organization and usage.
(You are expected to have a strong familiarity with the structure, language and rubrics in Kent's Repertory.)

  1. Repertory content

  2. Structure of Kent’s Repertory

  3. Chapter and rubric organization; arrangement of rubrics and sub-rubrics

  4. Grading of general, common, and particular symptoms

  5. How to select the most appropriate rubrics from described symptoms in the case

  6. Interpretation of symptom descriptions and differentiation between rubrics with subtle

    variations.

  7. The process of repertorization: locate symptoms, identify remedies associated with them, and

    determine the appropriate remedy for a case.

AIHC Examination Objectives: Part II

SECTION: MEDICAL SCIENCES

I. Identify basic anatomic structures of the human body and their general functions:

  1. Define common anatomical terms used to describe various regions of the human body (e.g. thoracic, cervical, inguinal, lumbar).

  2. Define the main directional terms used in association with the human body (superior, inferior, posterior, anterior, lateral).

  3. Identify the principal body cavities and for each body cavity, identify the organs contained within them.

  4. Describe the location of an organ by using the region and quadrant grids.

  5. Recognize the main functions of the integumentary system (skin and associated

    structures).

  6. Identify the two principle layers of the skin.

  7. Describe the basis for skin pigmentation.

  8. Recognize the main functions of the skeletal system.

  9. List and describe the parts of the long bone.

  10. Describe the role of minerals, vitamins, and hormones in bone growth and remodeling.

  11. Compare and contrast the role of hormones (PTH and CT) that stimulate opposing

    activities of bone cells, in order to maintain blood calcium homeostasis

  12. Give the names of the 22 skull bones.

  13. Describe the five regions of the vertebral column.

  14. Identify the bones that form the rib cage and pectoral girdle.

  15. Identify the upper extremity and its component bones.

  16. Identify the bones of the pelvic girdle.

  17. Identify the lower extremity and its component bones.

  18. Classify the organs of the nervous system into central and peripheral divisions.

  19. Identify the three layers of the meninges and their function.

  20. Recognize the function of the blood-brain barrier.

  21. Identify common symptoms of sympathetic and parasympathetic responses.

  22. Differentiate between the types of adrenergic (alpha- and beta-) receptors.

  23. Distinguish between acute and chronic pain and among superficial somatic, deep somatic,

    and visceral pain.

  24. Define referred pain.

  25. Identify organs of the special senses (olfaction, gustation, vision, hearing, and

    equilibrium).

  26. Identify the seven major hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and the two

    hormones released by the posterior pituitary gland, and their functions.

  27. Identify the hormones produced by the thyroid gland and their functions.

  28. Identify the hormones produced by the parathyroid gland and their functions.

  29. Identify the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, and their

    functions.

  30. Identify the hormones produced by the pancreas and their function.

  31. Identify the main components of the blood.

  32. Differentiate between plasma and serum.

  33. Identify the function of the red blood cells (eryhthrocytes).

  34. Identify the function of the platelets (thrombocytes).

  35. Identify the function of the white blood cells (leukocytes).

  36. Recognize the four cardinal signs of inflammation.

  37. Describe the location and orientation of the heart.

  38. Identify the three layers of the heart: pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium.

  39. Identify the location of the heart valves (mitral valve, tricuspid valves, pulmonary valve, aortic valve) in the heart chambers

  40. Define normal systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  41. Identify the structures of the respiratory system and indicate whether they are a part of the upper or lower respiratory regions.

  42. Describe the lungs and the serosa membrane of the pleural cavity.

  43. Identify the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs of digestion and their general functions in digestion.

  44. Identify the organs of the urinary system and their general function.

  45. Identify the organs of the male reproductive system and their general functions. Describe the function of the testosterone.

  46. Identify the organs of the female reproductive system and their general functions. Describe the general purpose of the menstrual and ovarian cycle.

  47. Describe the hormonal changes that promote ovulation and menstruation.

  48. Describe the hormonal changed of menopause.

  49. Differentiate between embryological development and fetal development.

  50. Identify the three periods of prenatal development.

  51. Compare the sources and functions of the hormones secreted during pregnancy.

  52. Identify early pregnancy tests and their purpose.

  53. Outline the hormonal and neural regulation of the duration of pregnancy.

  54. Describe the characteristics of the three stages of labor.

  55. Describe the conditions that may necessitate alternative means of delivery.

  56. Outline the hormonal regulation of lactation.

II. Recognize and define medical terms used in the homeopathic repertory:

1. Related to skin: abrasion, boils, callus, cicatrices, comedone, condyloma, ecchymoses, bulla, carbuncle, cicatrix, circinate, erythema, excrescence, eczema, felon, freckles, fissure, jaundice, keloid, laceration, mealy, macule, nevus, nodules, papule, pemphigus, petechiae, pimples, purpura, pustules, rupia, sore, vesicles, verrucae (wart), ulcer, pressure ulcer, urticarial

2. Related to skeletomuscular system: arthrosclerosis, bursitis, arthritis, fasciitis, tendonitis, myocele, hernia, ganglionic cyst, heel spurs; myasthenia, hemiparesis, hemiplegia, quadriplegia; ataxia, dystaxia, spasm, cramp, spasmodic torticollis, sprain, strain.

3. Related to nervous system: hydrocephalus, meningitis, encephalitis, spinal cord compression, concussion, cerebral contusion, cranial hematoma; hyperesthesia,paresthesia; syncope, lethargy, stupor, coma, delirium, and dementia; insomnia, narcolepsy, somnambulism, somnolence; delirium, delusions, hallucinations.
4. Related to eyes & vision: conjunctivitis, trachoma, corneal abrasion, cataract, nystagmus, detached retina, uveitis, glaucoma, macular degeneration, strabismus, diplopia, nyctalopia, presbyopia, astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia.

5. Related to ear, hearing & equilibrium: otitis media, otitis externa, mastoiditis, vertigo, Meniere’s syndrome, tinnitus.

6. Related to endocrine system: acromegaly, hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, polyuria.
7. Related to cardiovascular system: thrombosis, embolism, varicose veins, hypertension, hypotension, arrhythmia, fibrillation, bradycardia, tachycardia, palpitation, atherosclerosis, ischemia, angina pectoris, aneurism, phlebitis.
8. Related to respiratory system: hyperventilation, tachypnea, bradypnea, apnea, dyspnea, asphyxia, cyanosis, epistaxis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, laryngospasm, bronchitis, pleuritis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary edema.

9. Related to digestive system: bruxism, emaciation, eructation, emesis, nausea, regurgitation, bowel incontinence, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, melena, ascites, enteritis, periodontitis, gingivitis, dysphagia, gastritis, gastroenteritis, diverticulitis, diverticulosis, volvulus, intussusception, inguinal hernia, strangulated hernia, cholecystitis, hepatitis, cirrhosis.
10. Related to urinary system: anuria, dysuria, enuresis, nocturia, oliguria, polyuria, incontinence, nephritis, glomerulonephritis, cystitis, cystocele, urethritis.
11. Related to male reproductive system: balanitis, phimosis, impotency, premature ejaculation, epididymitis, hydrocele, torsion of the testis, varicocele, priapism, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis.
12. Related to female reproductive system: amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, salpingitis, endometriosis, uterine prolapse, leukorrhea, metrorrhea vaginitis, mastitis.

III. Identify the symptoms, characteristics, and possible complications of common conditions related to:

  1. Skin and associated organs: acne vulgaris, albinism, alopecia, dermatitis, rosacea, scleroderma, vitiligo; impetigo, erysipelas/cellulitis, warts, necrotizing fasciitis, chickenpox, zoster, cold sores, roseola, tinea (ringworm), candidiasis (thrush).

  2. Skeletal system: herniated (slipped) disc, lumbago, spina bifida, gouty arthritis, rickets, osteoporosis.

  3. Muscular system: muscular dystrophy, fibromyalgia syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome

  4. Nervous system: migraine headache, cluster headaches, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Bell’s palsy, Cerebral palsy, epilepsy, cerebrovascular accident, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic strokes, poliomyelitis, tetanus, botulism.

  5. Psychotic disorders: schizophrenia, dissociative disorders, mood disorders (depression, bipolar disorder), anxiety disorders (generalized, obsessive-compulsive, posttraumatic), panic disorder, phobias (acrophobia, agoraphobia, claustrophobia), kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, personality disorders, fastidious disorders (Munchausen, Malingering)

  6. Endocrine system: diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2

  7. Blood disorders: anemia (iron-deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, sickle-cell anemia, and Thalassemia), thrombocytopenia, leukemia, lymphomas.

  8. Immunological disorders and autoimmune diseases: allergies, contact dermatitis (poison ivy), psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, lupus erythematosus, insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, Grave’s disease (Goiter, exophthalmos), inflammatory bowel syndrome; toxic shock syndrome, anaphylactic shock.

  9. Cardiovascular system: deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarct, congestive heart failure, cardiac tamponade, endocarditis, pericarditis

  10. Respiratory system: croup, diphtheria, influenza, pertussis, tuberculosis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

  11. Digestive system: gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease.

  12. Urinary system: acute renal failure, polycystic kidney disease.

  13. Reproductive system: polycystic ovary syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease, urine fibroids, premenstrual syndrome; pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestation diabetes

IV. Recognize the signs of shock:

  1. Define shock and its general consequences.

  2. Recognize the four causes of shock.

  3. Recognize the characteristic signs and symptoms of shock.

 

These are the signs of LIFE-THREATENING CONDITIONS, which require immediate and appropriate life-saving interventions: 

Airway: complete or severe obstruction

Breathing: apnea, significant increased work of breathing, bradypnea

Circulation: absence of palpable pulse, poor perfusion, hypotension, bradycardia

Disability: unresponsiveness, decreased level of conciousness

Exposure: hypothermia, significant bleeding, petechiae, or purpura consistent with septic shock

SECTION: POSOLOGY

Demonstrate knowledge and application of the guidelines for administration of homeopathic remedies:

  1. Principle of a single remedy at a minimal dose

  2. Potency selection

  3. Methods of administration of homeopathic remedies

  4. Frequency of repetition

 

SECTION: CASE MANAGEMENT

Demonstrate knowledge and application of the criteria for evaluation of patient’s response to homeopathic remedy and prognosis:

  1. Criteria for determining amelioration of complaints

  2. Homeopathic aggravation

  3. Second prescription

  4. Prognosis after observing the action of the remedy; from Lectures on Homeopathic Philosophy by J. T. Kent, M.D.:

FIRST observation: Prolong aggravation and final decline of the patient
SECOND observation: Long aggravation, but final and slow improvement
THIRD observation: aggravation is quick, short and strong with rapid improvement of the patient
FORTH observation: Recovery without any aggravation
FIFTH observation: Amelioration comes first and the aggravation comes afterwards SIXTH observation: Too short relief of symptoms

SEVENTH observation: Full time amelioration of the symptoms, yet no specific relief of the patient
EIGHTH observation: Some patients prove every remedy that they get.
NINTH observation: The action of medicine upon proves (healthy individuals)

TENTH observation: New symptoms appear after the remedy

ELEVENTH observation: Return of old symptoms (ROS) are observed

TWELFTH observation: The symptoms take a wrong direction

     5. Reciprocal states of a homeopathic remedy

     6. Treatment regimen for chronic diseases

     7. Treatment of diseases with only few symptoms and one-sided disease

     8. Idiosyncrasies; varying sensitivities.